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Champion Hill   

Other Names: Bakers Creek

Location: Hinds County

Campaign: Grantís Operations against Vicksburg (1863)

Date(s): May 16, 1863

Principal Commanders: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant [US]; Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton [CS]

Forces Engaged: Army of the Tennessee (three corps) [US]; Department of Mississippi and East Louisiana [CS]

Estimated Casualties: 6,757 total (US 2,457; CS 4,300)

Description: Following the Union occupation of Jackson, Mississippi, both Confederate and Federal forces made plans for future operations. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston retreated, with most of his army, up the Canton Road, but he ordered Lt. Gen. John C. Pemberton, commanding about 23,000 men, to leave Edwards Station and attack the Federals at Clinton. Pemberton and his generals felt that Johnstonís plan was dangerous and decided instead to attack the Union supply trains moving from Grand Gulf to Raymond. On May 16, though, Pemberton received another order from Johnston repeating his former directions. Pemberton had already started after the supply trains and was on the Raymond-Edwards Road with his rear at the crossroads one-third mile south of the crest of Champion Hill. Thus, when he ordered a countermarch, his rear, including his many supply wagons, became the advance of his force. On May 16, 1863, about 7:00 am, the Union forces engaged the Confederates and the Battle of Champion Hill began. Pembertonís force drew up into a defensive line along a crest of a ridge overlooking Jackson Creek. Pemberton was unaware that one Union column was moving along the Jackson Road against his unprotected left flank. For protection, Pemberton posted Brig. Gen. Stephen D. Lee's men atop Champion Hill where they could watch for the reported Union column moving to the crossroads. Lee spotted the Union troops and they soon saw him. If this force was not stopped, it would cut the Rebels off from their Vicksburg base. Pemberton received warning of the Union movement and sent troops to his left flank. Union forces at the Champion House moved into action and emplaced artillery to begin firing. When Grant arrived at Champion Hill, around 10:00 am, he ordered the attack to begin. By 11:30 am, Union forces had reached the Confederate main line and about 1:00 pm, they took the crest while the Rebels retired in disorder. The Federals swept forward, capturing the crossroads and closing the Jackson Road escape route. One of Pemberton's divisions (Bowenís) then counterattacked, pushing the Federals back beyond the Champion Hill crest before their surge came to a halt. Grant then counterattacked, committing forces that had just arrived from Clinton by way of Bolton. Pembertonís men could not stand up to this assault, so he ordered his men from the field to the one escape route still open: the Raymond Road crossing of Bakers Creek. Brig. Gen. Lloyd Tilghmanís brigade formed the rearguard, and they held at all costs, including the loss of Tilghman. In the late afternoon, Union troops seized the Bakers Creek Bridge, and by midnight, they occupied Edwards. The Confederates were in full retreat towards Vicksburg. If the Union forces caught these Rebels, they would destroy them.

Result(s): Union victory

The Confederate Forces At Vicksburg.
 Confederate Army Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton
  First Division Major General W.W. Loring
   First Brigade Brig. General Lloyd Tilghman (k);
                 Colonel A.E. Reynolds
    1st Confederate Battalion Major G.H. Forney
    6th  Miss.   Colonel Robert Lowery
    15th Miss.   Colonel M. Farrell
    20th Miss.   Colonel D.R. Russell
    23rd Miss.   Colonel J.M. Wells
    26th Miss.   Colonel A.E. Reynolds;
                 Major T.F. Parker
    Miss. Battery  Captain Jacob Culbertson
     Brigade loss: Champion's Hill 5 killed, 10 wounded, 42 missing
   Second Brigade Brig. General Winfield S. Featherston
    3rd  Miss.    Colonel T.A. Mellon
    22nd Miss.    Lieut. Colonel H.J. Reid
    31st Miss.    Colonel J.A. Orr
    33rd Miss.    Colonel D.W. Hurst
    1st  Miss.(1) Sharpshooters Major W.A. Rayburn
     Brigade loss: Champion's Hill 2 wounded, 1 missing
            total: 3
   Third Brigade Brig. General Abram Buford
    27th Ala.    Colonel James Jackson
    35th Ala.    Colonel Edward Goodwin
    54th Ala.    Colonel Alpheus Baker (w)
    55th Ala.    Colonel John Snodgrass
    9th  Ark.    Colonel Isaac L. Dunlop
    3rd  Ky.(4 co's) Major J.H. Bowman
    7th  Ky.   Colonel Edward Crossland
    12th La.   Colonel T.M. Scott
    Pointe Coupee' (La.) Artillery Captain Alcide Bouanchaud
     Brigade loss: Champion's Hill 11 killed, 49 wounded
            total: 60
  Stevenson's Division Major General Carter L. Stevenson
   Staff loss: Champion's Hill 1 killed
   First Brigade Brig. General Seth M. Barton
    40th Ga.     Colonel Abda Johnson;
                 Lieut. Colonel robert M. Young
    41st Ga.     Colonel William E. curtiss
    42nd Ga.     Colonel R.J. Henderson
    43rd Ga.     Colonel Skidmore Harris (k);
                 Captain M.M. Grantham
    52nd Ga.     Colonel C.D. Phillips (m);
                 Major John J. Moore
    Hudson's (Miss.) Battery Lieutenant Milton H. Trantham
    Pointe Coupee' (La.) Battery Section Company A Lieut. John Yoist
    Pointe Coupee' (La.) Battery Company C Capt. Alexander Chust
     Brigade loss: Champion's Hill 58 killed, 106 wounded, 737 missing
                   Vicksburg siege 6 killed, 20 wounded, 5 missing
            total: 932
   Second Brigade Brig. General E.D. Tracy (k);
                  Colonel Isham W. Garrott;
                  Brig. General Stephen D. Lee
    20th Ala.     Colonel Ishman W. Garrott (k);
                  Colonel Edward W. Pettus
    23rd Ala.     Colonel F.K. Beck
    30th Ala.     Colonel Charles M. Shelley;
                  Captain John c. Francis
    31st Ala.     Colonel D.B. Hundley (w);
                  Lieut. Colonel T.M. Arrington;
                  Major G.W. Mathieson

    46th Ala.     Colonel Michael L. Woods (c);
                  Captain George E. Brewer
    Ala. Battery  Captain James F. Waddell
     Brigade loss: Port Gibson 18 killed, 112 wounded, 142 missing
                   Champion's Hill 53 killed, 152 wounded, 609 missing
                   Vicksburg siege 79 killed, 177 wounded, 7 missing
            total: 1349
   Third Brigade Brig. General Alfred Cumming
    34th Ga.     Colonel James A.W. Johnson
    36th Ga.     Colonel Jesse A. Glenn;
                 Major Charles E. Broyles
    39th Ga.     Colonel J.T. McConnell (w);
                 Lieut. Colonel J.F.B. Jackson
    56th Ga.     Colonel E.P. Watkins (w);
                 Lieut. Colonel J.T. Slaughter
    57th Ga.     Lieut. Colonel C.S. Guyton
                 Colonel William Barkuloo
    Cherokee (Ga.) Artillery Captain M. Van Der Corput
     Brigade loss: Champion's Hill 121 killed, 269 wounded, 605 missing
                   Vicksburg siege 22 killed, 74 wounded
            total: 1091
   Fourth Brigade Colonel A.W. Reynolds
    3rd  Tenn.    Colonel N.J. Lillard
    31st Tenn.    Colonel William M. Bradford
    43rd Tenn.    Colonel James W. Gillespie
    59th Tenn.    Colonel William L. eakin
    3rd  Md. Battery Captain F.O. Claiborne (k);
                  Captain john B. Rowan
     Brigade loss: Champions Hill 152 missing
                   Big Black Bridge 12 missing
                   Vicksburg siege 14 killed, 25 wounded, 14 missing
            total; 217
   Texas Legion Colonel T.N. Waul
    1st Battalion Major Eugene S. Bolling
    2nd Battalion  Lieut. Colonel James Wrigley
    Cavalry Battalion Lieutenant Thomas J. Cleveland
    Artillery Company Captain J.Q. Wall
     Legion loss: Vicksburg siege 47 killed, 190 wounded, 8 missing
           total: 245
   Attached Troops
    C 1st Tenn. (Carter's) Cavalry Captain R.S. Vandyke
    Botetourt (Va.) Artillery Captain J.W. Johnston;
                              Lieutenant James P. Wright
  Forney's Division Major General John H. Forney
   Hebert's Brigade Brig. General Louis Hebert
    3rd  La.        Lieut. Colonel S.D. Russell;
                    Major David Pierson (w);
    21st La.        Colonel Charles H. Herrick (m w);
                    Lieut. Colonel J.T. Plattsmier
    36th Miss.      Colonel W.W. Witherspoon
    37th Miss.      Colonel O.S. Holland
    38th Miss.      Captain D.B. Seal
    43rd Miss.      Colonel Richard Harrison
    7th  Miss.(1)   Captain A.M. Dozier
    C 2nd Ala. Artillery Lieutenant John R. Sclater
    Appeal (Ark.) Battery Captain W.N. Hogg (k);
                    Lieutenant R.N. Cotten
     Brigade loss: Vicksburg siege 219 killed, 45 wounded, 21 missing
            total: 695
   Moore's Brigade Brig. General John C. Moore
    37th  Ala.     Colonel J.F. Dowdell
    40th  Ala.     Colonel John H. Higley
    42nd. Ala.     Colonel John W. Portis;
                   Lieut. Colonel Thomas C. Lanier
    1st Miss. Light Artillery Colonel William T. Withers
    35th  Miss.    Colonel William S. Barry;
                   Lieut. Colonel C.R. Jordan
    40th  Miss.    Colonel W.B. Colbert
    2nd   Tex.     Colonel Ashbel Smith
    Ala.  Battery  Captain H.H. Sengstak
    Pointe Coupee' (La.) Artillery Captain William A. Davidson
     Brigade loss: Vicksburg siege 121 killed, 304 wounded
            total: 425
  Smith's Division Major General Martin L. Smith
   First Brigade Brig. General W.E. Baldwin
    17th La.     Colonel Robert Richardson
    31st La.     Colonel S.H. Griffin (k);
                 Lieut. Colonel James W. Draughon
    4th  Miss.   Lieut. Colonel T.W. Adaire (w);
                 Captain Thomas P. Nelson
    46th Miss.   Colonel C.W. Sears
    Tenn. Battery Captain Thomas F. Tobin
     Brigade loss: Port Gibson 12 killed, 48 wounded, 27 missing
            total: 87
   Vaughn's Brigade Brig. General J.C. Vaughn
    60th Tenn.      Captain J.W. Bachman
    61st Tenn.      Lieut. Colonel James G. Rose
    62nd Tenn.      Colonel John A. Rowan
   Third Brigade Brig. General Francis A. Shoup
    26th La.     Colonel Winchester Hall (w);
                 Lieut. colonel William C. Crow
    27th La.     Colonel L.D. Marks (m w);
                 Lieut. colonel L.L. Mclaurin (k);
                 Captain Joseph T. hatch
    28th La.     Colonel Allen Thomas
    McNally's (Ark.) Battery
     Brigade loss: Vicksburg siege 107 killed, 199 wounded
            total: 306
   Mississippi State Troops Brig. General John V. Harris
    5th Regiment  Colonel H.C. Robinson
    3rd Battalion Lieut. Colonel Thomas A. Burgin
   Attached Troops
    14th Miss. Battalion Major M.S. Ward
    Miss. Partisan Rangers Captain J.S. Smyth
  Bowen's Division Major General John S. Bowen
   First (Mo.) Brigade Colonel Francis M. Cockrell
    1st Mo.    Colonel A.C. Riley
    2nd Mo.    Lieut. Colonel P.S. Senteny (k);
               Major Thomas M. Carter
    3rd Mo.    Lieut. Colonel F.L. Hubbell (m w);
               Colonel W.R. Gause;
               Major J.K. McDowell
    4th Mo.    Colonel A.C. Riley
    5th Mo.    Lieut. Colonel R. S. Bevier
               Colonel James McCowan
    6th Mo.    Colonel Eugene Erwin (k)
               Major Stephen Cooper
   Mo.Battery  Lieut. William Corkery
   (Guibor's)  Lieut. Cornelius Hefferman
   Mo. Battery Captain John C. Landis
               Lieut. John M. Langan
   Mo. Battery Lieut. Richard C. Walsh
   Brigade loss: Port Gibson 13 killed; 97 wounded;
                 96 captured or missing
                 Total: 206
                 Champion's Hill 65 killed; 293 wounded;
                 242 captured or missing
                 Total: 600
                 Big Black Bridge 2 killed
                 Vicksburg (siege) 113 killed; 446 wounded
                 Total: 559
  Second Brigade Brig. General Martin E. Green (k)
                 Colonel T. P. Dockery
   15th Ark.     Colonel Caleb Davis
   19th Ark.     Col. T. P. Dockery
                 Captain James K. Norwood
   20th Ark.     Colonel D. W. Jones
   21st Ark.     Colonel J. E. Cravens
                 Captain A. Tyler
   1st  Ark. Cavalry(1)(2) Captain John J. Clark
   12th Ark. Sharp-shooters(1) Captain Griffin Bayne (w);
                 Lieutenant John S. Bell
   1st Mo. Cavalry(2)  Colonel Elijah Gates;
                 Major William C. Parker
   3rd Mo. Cavalry(2)  Captain Felix Lotspeich
   3rd Mo. Battery     Captain William E. Dawson
   Lowe's (Mo.) Battery  Lieutenant Thomas B. Catron
   Stirman's Battalion   Colonel Ras. Stirman
    Brigade loss: Port Gibson 17 killed, 83 wounded, 122 missing
              Champion's Hill 65 killed, 137 wounded, 65 missing
              Big Black Bridge 1 killed, 9 wounded, 1012 missing
  River Batteries Colonel Edward Higgins
   1st La. Artillery Lieut. Colonel D. Beltzhoover
   8th La. Artillery(1) Major F.N. Ogden
   23rd La. Artillery   Captain Samuel Jones
   1st Tenn. Artillery  Colonel A. Jackson, Jr.
   Tenn. Battery  Captain J.B. Caruthers
   Tenn. Battery  Captain T.N. Johnston
   Tenn. Battery  Captain J.P. Lynch
   Vaiden (Miss.) Battery Captain S.C. Bains
  Miscellaneous Units
   54th Ala. Detachment Leutenant Joel P. Abney
   City Guards Captain E.B. Martin
   Miss. Cavalry Colonel Wirt Adams
  Johnston's Forces General Joseph E. Johnston
   Gregg's Brigade Brig. General John Gregg
    1st  Tenn.(1)  Major S.H. Colms
    3rd  Tenn.     Colonel C.H. Walker
    10th Tenn.     Colonel R.W. MacGavock (k);
                   Lieut. Colonel James J. Turner
    30th Tenn.     Colonel R.W. MacGavock (k);
                   Lieut. Colonel James J. Turner
    41st Tenn.     Colonel R. Farquharson
    50th Tenn.     Lieut. Colonel T.W. Beaumont(w)
    7th Texas      Colonel H.B. Granbury
    Mo. Battery    Captain H.M. Bledsoe
     Brigade loss: Raymond 73 killed, 251 wounded, 190 missing
   Gist's Brigade Colonel Peyton H. Colquitt
    46th Ga.      Captain T.B. Hancock
    14th Miss.    Lieut. Colonel W.L. Doss
    24th S.C.     Lieut. Colonel Ellison Capers
    Miss. Battery Captain J.A. Hoskins
     Brigade loss: Jackson 17 killed, 64 wounded, 118 missing
   Walker's Brigade Brig. General W.H.T. Walker
    1st Battalion Ga. Sharpshooters Major A. Shaaff
    Ga. Battery Captain R. Martin
    3rd Ky.(3) Colonel A.P. Thompson
    8th Ky.(3) Colonel H.B. Lyon
    Rust's Brigade  from Port Hudson
    Maxey's Brigade from Port Hudson
    Ector's Brigade from Tennessee
    McNair's Brigade from Tennessee
    Breckinridge's Division from Tennessee
    W.H. Jackson's Division from Tennessee
    Evan's Brigade from Charleston
    Loring's Division from Pemberton's command
Reinforcements arrived after Grant's withdrawal
from Jackson to Vicksburg.
Confederate Strength:
 On June 4th, General Johnston reported his
 strength at 24,000 effectives.
 General Pemberton says in his official report that his
 effective force numbered 28,000 when he moved into
 the Vicksburg defenses.
Confederate losses from May 1st to July 3rd,
inclusive are given as:
 1260 killed, 3572 wounded, 4227 missing
  total: 9059